Data parsing: what is parsing data and how does it work?

Learn about data parsing and how to choose between purchasing a parser and building your own.


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What is data parsing?

Data parsing means restructuring and converting unstructured data. For example, if you're transforming HTML into plain text, that's data parsing. It's a process that transforms unstructured or unreadable data into structured or readable formats to make it more accessible and useful across various applications and industries.

You can use numerous parsing tools and technologies to automate data parsing and make it more efficient and cost-effective. You can find them on Apify Store.

Why is parsing data so important?

Parsing facilitates the integration of big data from multiple sources into a single format. This makes data analysis more straightforward, streamlines team workflows, and offers greater flexibility since the data can be reused for various purposes. Also, parsing enhances data quality by cleaning and standardizing data for more reliable insights.

The benefits of data parsing

Parsing data means far more than merely organizing data. It's about turning the chaos of unstructured data into actionable insights. Parsing allows for the creation of consistent objects for business logic. This means that no matter the data source – be it a JSON API, a CSV file, a scraped web page, or an XML document – parsing processes this varied input into a uniform set of objects, like a Product class with fields for name, price, etc. This uniformity allows application code to interact with clean, well-defined objects, saving developers from the intricacies of different data formats.

How does the parsing process work?

That's the 'why' of data parsing. Now for the 'how'. Here's the parsing process in a nutshell:

1. Data input

The process begins with data input, which can include various formats like CSV, JSON, XML, or even plain text.

2. Breaking down data

Parsing involves breaking down the data into smaller elements. This step is necessary to identify the structure and format of the input data.

3. Data transformation

The core of parsing, this step transforms the broken-down data elements into a standardized format, such as a database table or a specific data object in programming.

4. Error checking

Parsing often includes validation and error checking to ensure data integrity and to handle any inconsistencies or anomalies in the input data.

5. Output generation

The final step is generating output in the desired format, ready for use in various applications or for further data processing.

Data parsing techniques

Common data parsing techniques

String parsing

The most fundamental approach to data parsing. String parsing entails breaking data down into smaller parts to locate and extract relevant data. Commonly applied in straightforward text parsing scenarios, it's used for tasks like locating specific keywords in a document or gleaning information from URLs.

Regular expression (regex) parsing

A step up in complexity, this technique utilizes character sequence patterns, known as regular expressions, to mine data from unstructured or semi-structured sources. This technique excels in pinpointing character patterns, such as phone numbers or email addresses, within text.

XML parsing

Focusing on XML documents, XML parsing extracts data by deconstructing the document into its elemental components and attributes. XML, a markup language for data storage and transfer, requires this parsing method for effective data retrieval. XML is widely used in enterprise data exchange, configuration files, and online publishing for its ability to represent complex data structures.

JSON parsing

Similar to XML parsing, JSON parsing is tailored for JSON documents, a popular lightweight format for data exchange in web applications. This technique breaks down JSON data into its constituent key-value pairs for information extraction. JSON is extensively used for APIs and web services, as well as configuration files and inter-process communication, due to its lightweight and easy-to-parse nature.

HTML parsing

HTML parsing is specifically designed for extracting data from HTML documents, the foundational language for web page creation. It involves dissecting the raw HTML into tags and attributes to retrieve necessary data.

Building or buying a data parser

As we mentioned earlier, HTML parsing is a very popular technique in scenarios involving web data extraction. So, let's go through some of the best-known HTML parsers for various programming languages.

Python HTML parsers

  • Beautiful Soup

One of the most popular Python libraries for web scraping and data parsing, Beautiful Soup is renowned for being easy to learn and apply. It's a common first choice for data extraction (parsing an HTML document or extracting a specific piece of content), data cleaning (removing unnecessary HTML tags and attributes), and quick turnaround projects like screen scraping.

When you use Beautiful Soup to parse an HTML document, the library constructs a tree-like structure known as 'soup,' which preserves the hierarchical structure of the HTML file. This makes it easy to navigate for data extraction through functions like find_all()find(), and select().

  • PyQuery

PyQuery is another Python tool that makes parsing HTML documents easy. It's a popular choice for developers who are familiar with jQuery (for JavaScript) and prefer a similar syntax for HTML parsing in Python.

PyQuery enables you to add elements, change text, and modify attributes. You can select elements from an HTML document with CSS selectors and XPath expressions. PyQuery also offers custom functions like filter()eq(), and slice() to refine sections.

  • Scrapy

Scrapy is more than just an HTML parser; it's a comprehensive web scraping framework allowing developers to craft spiders to crawl websites and extract structured data. One of the most powerful web crawling frameworks, Scrapy is highly efficient thanks to its asynchronous networking capabilities, making it suitable for large-scale data extraction tasks. It allows you to scrape data from multiple pages in parallel and export it.

JavaScript HTML parsers

  • Cheerio

For JavaScript developers, Cheerio stands out as a fast, flexible, and lean implementation of core jQuery designed specifically for the server. It enables developers to use familiar jQuery syntax to traverse and manipulate the DOM structure of HTML documents. Cheerio’s efficiency and ease of use make it a popular choice for web scraping projects where performance and simplicity are key.

  • jQuery

While not an HTML parser in the traditional server-side sense, jQuery has been instrumental in shaping the way developers interact with the DOM on the client side. Its concise and easy-to-use API for traversing and manipulating HTML documents has set a standard for web development practices. jQuery simplifies HTML document traversing, event handling, animating, and Ajax interactions for rapid web development. Although jQuery operates on the client side, it has inspired server-side libraries like Cheerio and pyQuery. jQuery's approach to DOM manipulation has made it easier for developers to extract and manipulate data directly from the web browser, providing a foundation for understanding and utilizing more complex HTML parsing and data extraction tools on the server side.

Other HTML parsers

  • Jsoup (Java)

In the Java ecosystem, Jsoup is the gold standard for HTML parsing and web scraping. It provides a very convenient API for extracting and manipulating data, using the best of DOM, CSS, and jquery-like methods. Jsoup is capable of parsing HTML from a URL, file, or string and finding and extracting data, using DOM traversal or CSS selectors. Its ability to handle malformed HTML makes it robust for real-world web scraping tasks.

  • Gumbo (C)

For the C programming language, Gumbo offers a pure-C HTML5 parser developed by Google. It's designed to provide a low-level parsing capability, converting HTML documents into a parse tree that C programs can easily manipulate. Gumbo is particularly useful for embedded systems or applications where dependencies need to be minimized.

  • phpQuery (PHP)

If you're a PHP enthusiast, you can rely on phpQuery, a server-side CSS selector-driven DOM API based on jQuery's syntax. It allows developers to write jQuery scripts server-side to manipulate the DOM for web scraping or document processing.

  • Nokogiri (Ruby)

For Ruby developers, Nokogiri is the go-to library. It provides an easy-to-use interface for parsing HTML, XML, and even SAX documents. Nokogiri blends the speed of native libraries with the elegance of Ruby, making it a powerful tool for web scraping and parsed document manipulation.

Building vs. buying a data parser: pros and cons

Deciding between building a custom data parser and purchasing an existing solution depends on factors such as budget, technical expertise, and specific use cases. Let's go through the pros and cons.

Building a custom data parser


Building a custom data parser allows for greater control and compatibility with existing systems, as it can be tailored to your organization’s specific requirements.


Nonetheless, constructing a custom data parser is costly and more time-consuming since finding proficient developers can be challenging and expensive.

Moreover, the development process can take ages, especially considering the need for extensive testing, debugging, and optimization to ensure the data parser’s efficiency and accuracy.

Purchasing a data parser


Purchasing a data parser offers a more cost-effective and time-efficient solution compared to building your own. By acquiring a data parser, you can quickly implement it into your organization and start reaping the benefits of improved efficiency and data analysis capabilities.


However, purchasing a data parsing tool may provide fewer options for control over the parsing process and customization. It's essential to carefully evaluate the features and capabilities of different tools and solutions available to determine which best meets your organization’s needs and requirements.

Apify Store: top scrapers and data parsers in one place

Google Sheets Import & Export Actor on Apify Store
Google Sheets Import & Export scraper can extract data and parse it for you in seconds.

Several data parsing tools and solutions are available on the market. These range from open-source libraries and frameworks to commercial products and platforms, providing a wide array of options for organizations of all sizes and industries.

Apify Store gives you access to more than 1,600 web scraping and automatization tools. Each of them works with tons of data. This data is parsed for you to open it conveniently in a simple sheet.

A small taste of what you can do with scrapers on Apify Store:

And if an existing tool or custom solution isn't what you're looking for, and you'd prefer to create your own, you can build your own data scraper on Apify and parse the data it produces.

Data parsing FAQs

What are some common data formats used in data parsing?

Common data formats include JSON, XML, CSV, and HTML. Each format has its unique structure and is used for different purposes.

What are some commonly used data parsing tools?

Tools for data parsing vary based on the data format but often include programming languages like Python or JavaScript and libraries such as Beautiful Soup for HTML, Pandas for CSV, and Cheerio for Node.js.

Can data parsing be automated?

Yes. Data parsing can often be automated using scripts or software that systematically process and convert data without manual intervention.

What are the challenges in data parsing?

Challenges can include dealing with large datasets, handling different data formats, managing inconsistent or incomplete data, and ensuring accuracy in the parsing process.

How is data parsing different from data scraping?

Data scraping is the process of extracting data from sources, usually websites, whereas data parsing is about converting this extracted data into a usable format.

How does data parsing impact data analysis?

Proper data parsing is critical for accurate data analysis. It ensures that the data is correctly formatted and structured, which makes analysis more efficient and reliable.

What are some best practices for data parsing?

Best practices include thoroughly understanding the data format, using reliable parsing tools, validating parsed data for accuracy, and handling errors gracefully.

Daniela Ryplová
Daniela Ryplová
Marketing coordinator at Apify. Passionate about disruptive innovations that can change the world for the better.
Theo Vasilis
Theo Vasilis
Author, copywriter, and general all-round wordsmith. Loves to inform, inspire, and illuminate. Interested in human and machine learning alike. Passionate about free information and an open web.

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